Supermarionation
– The technology

basically, Supermarionation is a combination of techniques devised to advance and improve the art of string puppetry. For a start, the puppets are strung differently. A SuperM puppet's main weight is supported by three head strings (as opposed to the more traditional shoulder wires) connected to a control frame, two of which are attached at the back of the head while the third runs through a small hole in the forehead; each string is adjustable for height at the control to get the head exactly level. Next to these differently strung puppets, SuperM involves the use of specially drawn metal control strings (varying from 0.0005 to 0.0036 inch in thickness so as to be all but invisible on the small screen) in combination with an electrically activated solenoid in the puppet head which moves the lips and is driven by pulses generated by a pre-recorded dialogue tape through a converter, the socalled 'lip-sync box'.

the SuperM mechanism
the Supermarionation mechanism this illustration has a larger version

Here, Supercar's Mike Mercury uses an unsuspecting friend to show off the lipsync mechanism. The fat grey cylinder positioned vertically between the two eyeballs is the solenoid. As current is applied to it through one of the metal strings, it pulls on a small metal thong, thereby opening the puppet's lower lip which is attached to the chin with a small piece of pliable leather and is closed again by means of a spring. [If anyone can tell me who the hapless guy in the chair is, I would very much like to know so I can add that little bit of trivia].

In his New Scientist article of December 1965, John Read wrote: "Our 'actors' cannot talk so we must record the dialogue – usually in a civilised Bostonian accent – before we shoot the film. The sound-track is played back as the film is being shot and in order to synchronise the movement of the mouth with the words, we had to devise a method of electrically connecting the puppets' heads with the tape-deck amplifier and also, of course, a means of ensuring that the right puppet 'speaks'. This was accomplished by assigning each puppet one of four separate channels which were fed back into the lip-sync machine through a neutral line. As the pre-recorded dialogue was sent through one of the four channels, the right actor would speak."

The magic box explained

One of my international correspondents :), Israel based Mickey Raphaelovich (an electronics engineer himself), eMailed me the following technical explanation and diagram of the lip-sync box.

lip-sync machine
The lip-sync machine: a fairly ancient [1965] Brenell Mark 5, Series 3 tape recorder coupled to John's magic box

This modern-day version of the lip-sync machine was used during the puppet demo at the Andersons Are Go! event. One wire connects the tape recorder to the lip-sync box on the right, the two wires coming out of the box ran up to the puppeteers' bridge and were connected to the back headstrings of Penny and Virgil.

During the demo, Sylvia, keeping a close eye on the scripted dialogue, used the row of black switches seen on the lefthand side of the box to switch between channels and thus have either Virgil or 'er Ladyship 'speak' (which, by the way, makes a very loud 'clacking' noise each time the solenoid is activated – a rather strange phenomenon as this is obviously never heard on television).